Sunday, May 24, 2020
In 1906, AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease entered the scientific world. Till this day, it is one of the most studied neurodegenerative diseases. Researchers have come a long way with scientific outcomes on the disease, but unfortunately there is no official cure, or a concise reason on how this disease is generated. The disease has been recognized to being genetic and affecting people in their later years, roughly around their sixtieth year. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease affects the personÃ¢â¬â¢s memory, language, judgment and even their daily tasks. While the disease continues to dramatically progress, it begins to affect all regions of the brain, causing the person to lose almost all of their functions. When the person has reached their final stage, they are no longer able to recognize themselves or their surroundings and would need full time dependent care. According to the AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Association (alz.org, 2016), the person may have up to eight years max to live after diagnosis. There are several methods in diagnosing AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease such as: asking the person about their family medical history, conducting memory tests, carrying out standard medical tests (urine and blood) and brain scans like CTÃ¢â¬â¢s, MRIÃ¢â¬â¢s and PETÃ¢â¬â¢s (NIH.gov, 2016). The only way the disease can be verified is after death, because brain tissue can then be studied for a complete diagnosis (NIH.gov, 2016). Researching AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease has been a continuous obstacle for all scientists. They have made miraculous advances in theirShow MoreRelatedAlzheimer s Disease : The Most Common Form Of Dementia1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDementia, known as one of the world s current pandemics, is estimated to be the fourth most common cause of death in the developed country, second only to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. With the aging population, dementia has gradually become a serious threat to the health of the elderly people in Australia. 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AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a progressive disorder (physical ailment whose course in most cases is the worsening, growth, or spread of the disease), and it is characterizedRead MoreEvidences for Materialism Essay903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconclude that Materialism is the best mind theory due to scientific evidence. Materialism and Dualism are both theories based on where the mind is located. The mind consists of mental states. Mental states can be divided into three categories: cognitive, conative and affective. Cognitive states are aimed at fitting the world and these include beliefs, knowledge,memories, understanding and experiences. Conative states are aimed at changing the world through decisions, choices, will and desires. Affective
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
International Bulletin of Business Administration ISSN: 1451-243X Issue 12 (2011) Ã © EuroJournals, Inc. 2011 http://www.eurojournals.com/IBBA.htm External and Internal Environments of Businesses in Nigeria: An Appraisal Obiwuru Timothy Chidi Department of Actuarial Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria E-mail: email@example.com Oluwalaiye, Olusola Babatunde Department of Economics, Banking and Finance, Babcock University, Nigeria E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Okwu, Andy Titus Department of Economics, Banking and Finance, Babcock University, Nigeria E-mail: email@example.com Abstract This paper appraised business external and internal environments, with specific reference to the Nigerian business environment. The methodology adoptedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Political considerations are also of significant relevance as they have direct impact on the functioning and success of the business. Political and regulatory changes are usually manifestations of the social and economic conditions and issues. Equally of primary concern to the businesses, their customers and stakeholders are economic considerations which often focus on the direct effects of the exchange of goods and services, the flow of m oney and the relationships between the participants. Customers are either satisfied, dissatisfied or have a neutral opinion (KPN Report, 2007). Economic considerations also cover indirect implications of economic activities such as hidden costs of transactions and the externalities borne by the society. In this regard, the most crucial economic questions often pertain to environmental-related impacts. Usually, they are some of the multifaceted negative and unintended outcomes of products, processes and operations. The foregoing implies that the environment of a business is the pattern of all the external and internal conditions and influences that affect its life, growth and development. Consequently, since growthShow MoreRelatedThe Pestle Analysis Of Pestle Analysis2371 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesP.E.S.T.L.E Analysis The PESTLE analysis is used to analyse the current and future predicaments of an industry that the organisation or business belongs to, thus helping to provide better strategic planning whilst gaining competitive superiority over competition. Significance of the factors that are included in the PESTLE analysis can vary depending on the market, organisation or business. 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COMPANY Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.5 CURRENT STRATEGYÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.....5 STRUCTUREÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5-6 PRODUCT CATEGORIES Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦........6 TASK # 2Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.7 BLUE OCEAN RED OCEANÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..7 DIFFRENCE BETWEEN BLUE OCEAN RED OCEANÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...8 CANDYKING LTD. COMPANY ANALYSIS FROM RED OCEAN PROSPECTIVE
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
These geological disasters Ã¢â¬â landslides, earthquakes, floods, tsunami, blizzards, volcanic eruptions, etc. can cause a lot of losses; property losses, financial losses, or even a loss of a family. We usually get a glimpse of these kinds of disasters in a super slow motion movie (very dramatic). We will write a custom essay sample on Reality of Risk of Geological Disasters or any similar topic only for you Order Now But along with these movies or in any theatrical plays, we somehow get amazed by the visual effects, the CGI, the audiovisuals and so on and so forth. But in reality, we tend to forget the real situation here of what could happen in the near future. Among with these geological disasters given, one of the most deadly natural disasters, according to The New York Times article written by Tara Bahrampour, is the Heat Wave. What is a heat wave? A heat wave is a time of anomaly sweltering climate that is tagged along by high-level humidity. Heat waves are caused by extremely hot, stale air masses. There has been a report last 27th of July 2018 at 07:09 PM by Agence France-Presse from inquirer.net that heat waves from the Arctic to Japan are deadly increasing around the world due to climate change. For all the people who have read the news or have heard of it Ã¢â¬â This has been the hottest July for no less than 250 years in Sweden, where indigenous Sami reindeer herders have been among those most exceedingly awful hit by an exceptional drought and also destroying out of control fires. While California has additionally indented up record temperatures of up to 48.9 C in Chino, many individuals have passed on in Japan in what authorities have called an Ã¢â¬Å"unprecedentedÃ¢â¬ heatwave. I have never felt frightened and scared as before while reading the news but it came out as a blow that made me more awake. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a wake-up call for everyone around the globe that these disasters are coming to us. How to cite Reality of Risk of Geological Disasters, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Interpersonal Communication of Mc Donalds. Answer: Introduction Effective communication plays an important role for an organization so that employees of each level can deliver and receive accurate set of information on that basis many activities supposed to be performed. Having accurate and precise communication system leads an organization to the path of success and sustainability. Effective communication helps the organization in the process of inflow and outflow of relevant information in a proper manner by which entire activities to be performed in a systematic manner as decided by the manager. By including effective communication within business premises, all the related activities would be executed within given time frame which further makes sure that organization would be capable to attain desired output and remain sustain into the market. This project report will be focused on developing effective communication system into the organization through which company can be able to eliminate its issues associated with the communication system. In the present competitive scenario, it is important for the organizations that they must include updated and accurate system of communication within their premises by which they could manage the internal business decorum. For execution of this project report, company Mc Donalds has been taken in which its internal system of communication will be evaluated through survey. The reason for selecting this organization is that Mc Donalds possesses efficient communication and co ordination among the employees serving within the organization. Diagnosis and reflection Mc Donalds is a famous fast food chain that delivers its glorious services in all over the world to its customers. This was developed in year 1940 by owner Richard and Maurice Mc Donald, since then it has developed large base of customer. There are many customers working in Mc Donalds presently i.e. 36,900 customers and for such type of big food chain it is necessary to develop and uphold effectual inflow and outflow of communication so that all the workers serving there could perform their work in an organized manner. There is a systematic chain being chased by the employees in Mc Donalds like whenever someone places an order at billing counter then an employee standing at the counter receives it after that the order is being communicated to the person who is working in the kitchen area through other staff member. There is also a direct system of communication followed by the employees working there (Delavier, 2010). For the execution of this project report, I have went to one of the several branches of Mc Donalds in order to conduct internal survey for collecting relevant information associated with the system of communication followed by the Mc Donalds Restaurant. Through the collected information, I have identified that there are some issues related with the communication system being confronted by the employees of Mc Donalds and still they are trying to manage these issues. With the help of some diagnostic tools, I have managed to recognize the communication issues confronted by the employees (Krajicek, 2008). Some diagnostic tools like Communication Style Questionnaire, Simple Interview Method, Personal interview, Johari Window Model, Assertiveness Questionnaire were used by me to collect the appropriate information from the workers serving over there. These models helped me in providing guidance regarding the generated issues of communication system within the organization. Proper evaluation of various aspects that provided me assistance in availing the guidance in respect to Mc Donalds, will be done by using these tools so that organization could be able to execute appropriate strategies in order to eliminate all the issues and hindrances related with the communication system of Mc Donalds (Claussen, 2009). Johari Window Method - To increase the individual perception on others, Johari Window Model is used. Johari Window Model is basically depends upon two aspects i.e. trust is considered as important element that can be discovered by your information to other person and developing some knowledge about your own with the help of responses given by the other person. This tool provides assistance to describe the facts related with the aspects that is known by one person and nor known by the one. Related aspects that are known by person is placed in the open area and the aspects that are not known by one is placed into the faade or in closed (hidden) area, some other aspects that are known by oneself are placed in blind area and remaining aspects stay unknown which are not known by others (Allen, 2015). Assestive Questionnaire Method -Two set of questionnaire have been prepared after collecting information associated with the aspects of Johari Windows Model. One format was based upon the assertiveness questionnaire and another was communication style questionnaire. A set of assertiveness questionnaire is based upon the queries associated with the feelings, thoughts, needs, etc. The main purpose for preparing this set of questionnaire was to collect relevant information linked with the feelings of employees working in the Mc Donalds. A set of assertive questionnaire provided assistance in getting the information about the internal feeling of employees confronting the issues and problems in the workplace by which a proper direction were developed towards the execution and implementation of strategies within Mc Donalds in order to resolve the communication issues (Bird, 2012). Communication style questionnaire - Another set of questionnaire i.e. communication style questionnaire helped in collecting the opinion of the workers linked with the organizations communication issues so that organization could be able to achieve its target effectively by resolving these communication issues through applying appropriate strategies. With the help of these two sets of questionnaire, a proper understanding has been developed by which employees state of mind has been identified. I have also recognized the perceptions or opinions of employees connected with the Mc Donalds communication system (Desjardins H, 2013). Simple Interview Method- In this method, employees had to give answers of some questions which were asked to them. Through this method employees expressed their perceptions towards the organization and its related issues. Personal or Face to face interview Method In this method, discussion were done personally with the employees through which the related issues of organization have been revealed. Employees responses have been received after applying various Diagnosis Tools from which it was indentified that there was several issues that were being confronted by the employees of Mc Donalds and by using a proper set of strategies, these issues could be resolved. Some issues which are identified after survey that the employees of Mc. Donalds did not possesses sufficient information about their duties like what they need to perform exactly and another issue is with the employees interpersonal skills because of this they could not be able to interact with the customer properly. A proper guidance or direction would be provided to the organization to overcome the issues of communication system within Mc Donalds. After completing the survey, I went to the manager of the Mc Donalds and done interaction regarding the identified issues of the organization. I described that in your organization there are some issues associated with the communication system. One of them is that employees of the organization did not have proper interpersonal skills by which they are not able to interact or communicate with the client efficiently. Employees are not able to explain the information about the products and services being delivered by them. So, in order to overcome this issue, you should conduct proper set of Training for the employees through which they will acquire some confidence and they can communicate with the customers easily. After this discussion, I mentioned the manager about the second issue that in your organization employees did not clearly know their roles and responsibility by which they are facing problem in performing their duties. For the solution to this issue, I recommend the manager that you must conduct daily meetings within the organization in order to describe the roles and responsibility of the employees and daily meetings also will help them to present the issue of the organization to the manager directly and get the solution for it. Literature Review With the help of effective communication, an organization could manage its business activity in an organized manner as communication plays vital role for a company to become successful. Communication is helpful in providing appropriate structure to the workers of organization regarding various aspects and on that basis they can perform their work in an effective and efficient manner. Various issues have been identified with the help of using diagnostic tools. In order to eliminate these issues, Mc Donalds needs to focus upon some appropriate strategies and implement them within the business premises properly. These issues can influence the entire business activities and needs to be controlled. With the help of diagnosis, several aspects related with the employees mindset have been recognized that leads to identification of proper solution in order to resolve these issues (Vangelisti, 2016). It was determined through collected information that Mc Donalds has been facing these issues from the past four years and still they manage their work accordingly. Workers standing at the billing counter are facing the problem while interacting with the consumers. Peoples mindset and their standard of living are changing with the time. At present, employee of any organization desires to get feedback of the services and products being provided by them. It has been recognized that employees managing the billing desk were confronting the issue in providing information to the customers regarding the services and products being delivered by them. In Mc Donalds, the main issue identified that proper training were not provided to the workers due to which they were facing problem while interaction with the customers (Dixon, 2012). Another issue which has been identified that the employees of Mc Donalds did not have proper set of information associated with their work profile that they need to perform. There were not any managerial support provided to the employees and all the activities that are need to be performed by whom is decided by the executive level. It was also determine that there were no meeting organized from the past few years through which they could get to know about their roles and responsibility (Gluyas, 2015). As it is concluded on the basis of above discussion that in Mc Donalds there are several issues confronted by the employees that needs to be solved as soon as possible by applying some appropriate strategies through which employees of the organization could interact with their customers in an effective manner (Gerson and Gerson, 2007). Mc Donalds should implement some set of strategies to eliminate the issues related with the communication system. Some set of strategies which should be adopted by Mc Donalds are described as below: Providing proper training helps the employees in enhancing their interpersonal skills by which they can interact with their customers without any hesitation. Training also helps the employees in gathering the relevant information associated with the services and products being delivered by them to the customer. Proper training also helps in boosting the self confidence level of employees so that they can easily solve the customers queries and also provides improved support to the customers as well (Delavier, 2010). Another strategy which will help in eliminating the problem of communication system is organized daily meeting. To acquire the knowledge about generating issues within the organization, management needs to get associated with their employees. Top level management should properly allocate the duties and responsibility to each and every employee so that they can perform them in a systematic manner (Anon, 2016). One more strategy related with this aspect is team building activities. Employees of Mc Donalds should develop team work among them to perform their activity in accurate manner. Management should divide the employees into several teams and work should be distributed to them accordingly. By involving such activities into the work pattern will help in building up the better co ordination among workers so that they can manage their work (Krajicek, 2008). Some more activities that can be taken into consideration in developing the system of communication of the premises are organizing cultural activities at workplace, official parties, involving fun activities, etc. would provide assistance in developing better relationship with each other and can perform their tasks in an effective manner (Guidelines for Special Issues of the Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, 2009). Management of an organization should maintain proper interaction with the employees time to time by the affect of which top level management gets to know about the issues generating within an organization and they can provide proper set of support in eliminating these issues so as to sustain the proper decorum of the organization. The issues related with the communication system should be resolved on priority basis so that operating activities could be managed by the employees of organization in an effective and efficient manner. It is essential for the Mc Donalds to motivate their employees by using Maslows motivational theory so that employees give their best in performing their roles and duties and develop better communication system within the premises. Another theory that can also be taken into consideration by Mc Donalds is relationship theory by which better co ordination will be developed among the employees of the organization which can be beneficial to eliminating the issue related with the communication system. With the help of effective communication system, Mc Donalds can easily achieve its targets as well as can sustain in the market (Claussen, 2009). Action plan Serial. No. Initiated Activities Total days Date of Starting Date of Completion Action which is to be executed 1 Communication System to be managed at Mc Donalds 183 Days 1 April 2017 30 Oct 2017 By using this action plan, evaluation of all the problems and issues related with the communication system of Mc Donalds will be done. Further, this plan will assist in taking correct decision regarding issues (Eggins and Slade, 2013). 2 Assessing the Current Position of Mc Donalds 30 Days 1 April 2017 30 April 2017 Time duration of this process is for one month in which face to face interaction with the employees, who are at present facing the problem, will be done by the top level management team. With the help of this process, responses of the employees will be collected through questionnaire (Gueldenzoph Snyder, 2008). 2.1 Upfront discussion with all Mc Donalds workers 15 Days 1 April 2015 15 April 2017 Face to face discussion between the manager and employees of the organization will be executed in order to gather useful information regarding the hindrances and issues of organization. That will help employees personally to resolve their problem (Padgett and Yoder, 2008). 2,2 Collection of feedback through questionnaire as well as evaluate them 15 Days 15 April 2017 30 April 2017 For execution of this project, a set of questionnaire will be prepared by the management which includes some bad as well as some good aspects of the Mc Donalds company. On the basis of these questionnaires, responses of the employees will be collected so that they can develop proper strategies regarding with the certain issues (Kargin, 2016). 3. Compare the employees responses and identify proper strategies. 30 Days 1 May 2017 30 May 2017 After taking responses of the employees, comparison and evaluation will be done on the basis of their given responses. After evaluation, complete report will be delivered to the top level management team that includes the issues and hindrances that are being faced by the workers of Mc Donalds. On that basis certain strategies to be developed accordingly (Levitt, 2016). 4. Provide Training 30 Days 1 June 2017 30 June 2017 Next step is all about to provide training to every workers of the organization in order to eliminate the issue. Time duration of training would be for three months. It is a hard task to manage the entire employee during their training period (Morgan, Paucar-Caceres and Wright, 2014). This training includes face to face interaction with the customers as well as to manage order getting from them. All these activities will be performed under the guidance of supervision so that employees could perform well. 5. Some Extra Activities must be included. 60 Days 1 July 2017 30 Aug 2017 It is necessary to include some extra activities apart from work would be there in order to reduce the boredom and enhance the creativity of employees but these activities must not influence the work of employees. It is required that employees must participate in each activities by which they can get some entertainment and feel refreshing at the premises. It is important for employee to enjoy their work so these activities will play an important role for this (Opt, 2017). 6. Organize Meetings Daily 122days 1 April 2017 31 Oct 2017 Daily meetings are the solution for every problem in an organization. Management of Mc Donalds must follow the process of daily meeting within the premises so that employees can easily discuss their problem to the management directly and these problems can be solve timely (Weerasinghe and Thisera, 2014). References Allen, M., 2015. Strategic Communication for Sustainable Organizations. s.l.:Springer. Bird, M., 2012. Upside Downside: How to Take the Sting Out of Business Risk. s.l.:Random House.. `DesJardins, 2013. Business Ethics: Decision Making for Personal Integrity and Social ResponsibilITy. s.l.:McGraw Hill Education. Vangelisti, A. (2016). On the importance of communication research.Communication Education,65(4), 501-504. Anon, 2016. Strategies for the Promotion of Effective Communication between Teachers and Students. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5(6), pp.1757-1761. Delavier, F., 2010. Strength training anatomy. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Dixon, J., 2012. Effective Strategies for Communication? Employees Views of a Communication Skills Course Eleven Years On. British Journal of Social Work, 43(6), pp.1190-1205. Gerson, S. and Gerson, S., 2007. Workplace communication. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. Gluyas, H., 2015. Effective communication and teamwork promotes productivity. Nursing Standard, 29(49), pp.50-57. Krajicek, J., 2008. Effective Communication Is "Hitched to Everything in the (Business) Universe". Business Communication Quarterly, 71(3), pp.369-373. Anon, 2009. Guidelines for Special Issues of the Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly. Business Communication Quarterly, 72(4), pp.464-466. Claussen, D., 2009. Strategic Plan Takes Action on Long-Term Problems and Opportunities. Journalism Mass Communication Educator, 64(1), pp.3-6. Eggins, S. and Slade, D., 2013. Informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers. Communication Medicine, 9(3). Gueldenzoph Snyder, L., 2008. Teaching Teams About Teamwork: Preparation, Practice, and Performance Review. Business Communication Quarterly, 72(1), pp.74-79. Kargin, N., 2016. Communication Science: Issues and Perspective. Modern Communication Studies, 5(2), pp.17-21. Levitt, S., 2016. Cultural Dialectics in International Teamwork Dynamics. International Journal of Business Communication, p.232948841662909. Morgan, L., Paucar-Caceres, A. and Wright, G., 2014. Leading Effective Global Virtual Teams: The Consequences of Methods of Communication. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 27(6), pp.607-624. Opt, S., 2017. Teaching audience adaptation using connected presentations and teamwork. Communication Teacher, 31(2), pp.85-89. Padgett, W. and Yoder, M., 2008. Effective Communication: Excellence in a Technical Presentation [DSP Education]. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 25(2), pp.124-127. Weerasinghe, T. and Thisera, T., 2014. Keys to Effective Listening and Presenting: An Action Plan. Kelaniya Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(1-2), p.33.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
Slight change of plans here. Blind Guardian is a band that I didnt really check out until this album came along, and now that I have, I wonder where I have been all these years. Blind Guardian is a staple in the power metal community being heavily influenced by Iron Maiden and have released their first studio album in 1988. Since then they became more progressive, more folky and more popular amongst the metal community. They are a German Progressive folk power metal band that is a force to be reckoned with. Before this album was released, their last album was in 2010, the same year of Iron Maidens last album. About the album its self, it is basicly focusing on one portal to the land of adventure and imagination which was aluded in an album much before this, about 20 years prior to be exact, which include the focus of many different portas to this place. We will write a custom essay sample on Beyond the Red Mirror(2015) by Blind Guardian or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Whether or not the Red Mirror was intended to be the last portal is yet to be seen considering the album was literally released four days prior to me writing this. It takes up a total of 71 minutes within just 11 tracks and it is a fun journey. The single of the album, Twilight of the Gods, is fast frantic and only takes about 5 minutes. The Ninth Wave is the epic opener to the album taking up about 9 and a half minutes so you can defidently see progression in the music. All of the tracks in general take from 3 minutes to 10 minutes which is a pretty big range for one album. Much like what Viridian and White Walls did for Colors, the tracks Miracle Machine and Grand Parade is this albums epic display of finishers. Overall, while the album may seem a while, it really isnt because it will fly by and you will enjoy every second of it. I wouldnt say the album is perfect, but it is defidently a great release and I have good thoughts on this years metal music. I encourage you to get any version of it you can, Vinyls, cassettes, CDs and if you want, the electronic version like on your phone somewhere once you get your hands on it. This is a phenominal release and once you listen to it, it will show. 9.5/10
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Extract from Angela's Ashes essays The story starts with a boy named Frank that catches typhoid fever. A doctor comes into his house, checks him, and then takes him and his mom to the hospital. In the hospital, they stick tubes with blood to him, Soldiers blood, and then he falls asleep. Frank awakes many times and sees nuns and nurses and doctors doing stuff to him. Then he sees a priest doing the Extreme Unction to him and then he falls asleep again. After Frank gets over the crisis, his father comes and tells him hes a great soldier, and then he has to go. The nurse tells Frank hes a miracle for getting over the crisis. After that, a girl from another room talks to him, shes called Patricia Madigan, shes 14 and she has diphtheria. They start talking but the nun comes in and tells them they cant talk. They keep talking regularly and one day, the girl sends a book to Frank through the man that mops the floor, Seamus. Its a book about English History. Patricia also had a book of poems, so she read them to Frank. She read a poem called The Highwayman that was exiting so Frank liked it very much. But one day, Sister Rita comes in and catches them talking so she tells Seamus to take the boy to an empty ward upstairs and so he cant talk with Patricia anymore. The ward upstairs has 20 beds and that ward had been used a long time ago during a shortage of food in Ireland that happened in the 1840s. The nun says that it was good that he was away from Patricia who wouldnt live to be old. Frank feels really sad because he understood what the nurse really meant and because he couldnt show that he understood. So he couldnt cry about a girl that taught him a lovely poem that the nurse said was bad. Then Seamus says Frank might come out any day and that he doesnt know about Patricia. Patricia dies two days after that. Feeling it was her fault that Frank was shifted, ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Brief - Assignment Example The plaintiff argued that the defendant negligently injured the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, the defendant claimed that the laryngeal was not severed. The rule of identifying negligence in this case is through expert opinion. The doctors argued that the method used by the plaintiff was appropriate. The trial court directed verdict on the defendant on specific negligence issue. The plaintiff illustrated the applicability of res ipsa loqoitur doctrine. The defendant claimed that the second foundation fact involving res ipsa loqoitur is absent due to the fact that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t lie in laymenÃ¢â¬â¢s common knowledge. This is in reference to injury occurring during cervical fusion surgery, because of inadequate care. The trial court refused to submit it; there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t basis for the application of res ipsa loqoitur. The defendant claimed that there was adequate evidence on the issue of trespass or battery. She alleges that four vertebrae were fused, together with the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s assurances and inability to warn her on related hazards. However, the defendant claimed that the defendant was given adequate advice on her health problem and the scope of the corrective surgery. The trial court found out that the trespass theory in this case is inadequate to the applicability to the surgery in which the patient did not consent. The trial court maintained the motion of the defendant for directed verdict. The trial court held that there was insufficient evidence to defend jury consideration of the case based on the four pleaded theories. Will the defendant continue the treatment of the patient, given that other medical services providers have refused to accept plaintiff as their patient? Is the refusal by hospitals like Herrick and Alta Bates to offer medical services to the patient amount to refusal to offer emergency medical services? A medical practitioner, who has provided the patient with adequate notice of termination, is not obliged to
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Profitable Brand for Hostess Brands Inc - Assignment Example The Hostess brand Inc. plunging into bankruptcy is due to the expensive business model that they use to operate. The company owns a large network of buildings, trucks; employees, Teamsters and the bakers union. After identifying the weakness of the Hostess Brands, Inc. Pepperidge farm Bread Company would restructure the business model and the brand would be profitable to the company. The shortcomings of Hostess Company are due to the expensive business model that it adopted. The model that Pepperidge farm Bread Company has will be able to sustain the brand. Buying the brand will not be a waste of resources but vale to the company. Pepperidge farm Bread Company business model does not allow the company to own all the assets that in the bread making the industry, but only the crucial part is handled with the company. The company, however, monitors all the proceedings that involve the sale of its products. The company has the right to terminate the contract that it might have entered in to with a distributor or any business party. The company would not distribute the brand once acquired, but use independent distributors to do the work. This would ensure that even if the workers paralyze the normal distribution, the distribution would still go on as usual. The company has set some guidelines for the awarding of contracts to distributors to protect its interests. The company uses the strategy of the distributor paying for the bread and earning from his sells. This ensures that the distributors work hard and sell the product. These will ensure that the distributors look for more customers to get more sells and earn more. These also reduce the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s losses compared to when it is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workers distributing the bread. The company has also reduced the cost of operation. The distributors are required to buy their own truck. This reduces the maintenance costs of the trucks. The strategy also ensures that only financially able distributors get the c ontracts to distribute the bread brand. Since the brand is popular within the population. The production would be in mass to satisfy the market. However, the number of bakeries required to achieve this will depend on factors as the route that the distributors are able to cover efficiently. The new establishment will only be set up in places that have a high market and the supply is insufficient to certify the market. Research is conducted before setting up new bakeries. In the meantime, Pepperidge farm Bread Company will use the bakeries accrued with the brand as it continues to study the market. The Pepperidge farm Bread Company will maintain the sole right to the formulae of making the bread and packaging. The company will also maintain the proprietorship rights but release as the distribution rights of the bread. The routes that the Pepperidge farm Bread Company own will go for bids. These routes will be sold to the highest able birder. The bidder will have to demonstrate that he can handle the route. The selling of the routes will help avoid unnecessary competition in the routes amongst the distributors. The act will also ensure that each distributor works hard in his designated route to achieve more sells.
Monday, January 27, 2020
CognitiveÃ¢â¬âbehavioural Syndromes of Neglect and Anosognosia Considering the neuropsychological diseases discussed during the course, critically compare and discuss theoretical interpretations of at least two syndromes Consciousness is one of the most interesting phenomena of the human mind. Consciousness refers to the integration of the cognitive experiences about self and the external environment (Orfei et al., 2007). However, when this psychological function is damaged, it may lead to dysfunctions in the attention and awareness of personal identity. The focus of the following essay is to provide insight into why the cognitiveÃ¢â¬âbehavioural syndromes of neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia that occur following right hemisphere stroke develop, and to evaluate to what extent this is true, taking into consideration their theoretical interpretations. Anosognosia has been defined by Babinsky (1914) as an impairment leading to unawareness of neurological and cognitive deficits following a brain injury. Individuals who suffer from anosognosia present with motor impairments which lead to gait and self-care deficits and are unaware of their impairments in functioning (Kortte Hillis, 2010). The syndrome of anosognosia often co-occurs with visuo-spacial neglect (Prigatano et al., 2011). Heilman, Watson and Valenstein (1994) defined neglect as a deterioration in attention towards or in response to a stimuli, which is not attributable to a motor or sensory impairment. Neglect is presented as a spectrum, with a variety of forms based on the regions of the lesion, the mode of outputs, reference frame and the sensory modality (Hillis Caramazza, 1995). Alongside their co-occurrence, anosognosia and neglect also overlap in terms of lesion sites, to be more specific, the right temporo-parietal junction, the superior and middle temporal gyri and the right insula (Beschin, Cocchini, Allen Della Sala, 2012). The lesion in the right temporo-parietal junction is extremely important in mechanisms of selective attention. More recent neuroimaging studies have recommended that parts of the parietal and temporal cortex are creating a supramodal structure that interposes goal-directed attention in multiple sensory modalities (Chambers, Stokes Mattingley, 2004). Furthermore, neuroimaging studies show that the insula is very important in self-awareness and in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s convictions about the functioning of their body parts (Karnath, Baier Nagele, 2005). Taking these in consideration, a lesion in these areas will lead to a dysfunction in directing attention towards a specific stimulus and about their beliefs of body parts functioning, therefore affecting the motor system. The two theoretical interpretations that provide a link between anosognosia and neglect, taking in consideration the dysfunctions presented earlier, are the attentional interpretation model for neglect and the feed-forward model for anosognosia. The attentional interpretation model is a model proposed by Heilman et al. (1993) which states that each hemisphere is provided with its own attentional neurological system, with the attentional system in the right hemisphere directing attention towards both sides of the visual field, whereas the attentional system in the left hemisphere directing attention only towards the right visual field. Therefore, if there is a damage to the left hemisphere, there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be a severe right neglect, whereas if there is a lesion to the right hemisphere, the patient will be unable to direct his/hers attention to the left visual field (Bisiach et al., 1998). Corbetta et al. (1993) conducted a PET study on 24 healthy volunteers in order to identify what are the neural systems involved in changing spatial attention towards a visual stimulus in the right or left visual field. Results showed that the right parietal cortex was activated when the participant was required to shift their attention in each visual field, whereas the left parietal lobe was active only when the participants had to change their attention to the right visual field. These finding suggest that the parietal and frontal regions control different aspects of special selection and also support the model proposed by Heilman et al. (1993). However, the attentional interpretation model cannot account for the dysfunctions in the motor system on its own. Therefore, we have to also take in consideration the attentional-arousal hypothesis and the directional hypokenisia. The attentional-arousal hypothesis suggests that neglect is predominantly a form of inattention emerging from the failure of triggering arousal that is needed to activate the neuronal systems necessary for spatial attention (Heilman Valenstien, 1972; Watson et al., 1973, 1974). Furthermore, the attentional hypothesis appears to be in close connection with the motor intention, since when one is directing his/hers attention towards a specific location, one is also ready to perform an action in that direction (Heilman Valenstien, 2003). Directional hypokenisia suggests that patients who suffer from neglect are reluctant in initiating movements towards the contralesional side. Moreover, even when patients are directing attention towards the neglected side and have imposed on them a strategy, their performance not only remained abnormal, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t improve (Heilman Valenstien, 1979). In a study conducted by Heilman and Valenties (1979), six patients with neglect were asked to identify a letter that was presented either to the left or right at the end of a line, before bisecting it. The task included lines that were placed at either the left of the body midline, the right, or the centre. Results showed that participants performed significantly better when the line was placed to the right side of the body rather than the left side. These results suggest that the neglect syndrome is a defect in the orienting response. Heilman and Valenstien (1979) suggested that this response appears in anticipation of an action, using the increased arousal to lower the sensory threshold. Therefore, lesions inducing neglect are affecting the arousal (as previously mentioned via the attentional-arousal hypothesis), leading to the inability of the hemisphere to prepare for the action. Based on the same dysfunction of the computational model of motor control is the feed-forward model for anosognosia. More recent theories established on the recent computational models of motor control proposed by Frith et al. (2000), suggest that anosognosia results from an abnormality in motor planning. This theory suggests that, under normal circumstances, in order to develop the intention to move, Ã¢â¬Å"forward modelsÃ¢â¬ are being used in order to generate accurate indicators about the approaching sensory feedback. However, if an intended movement is not executed as planned, than a comparator will detect a discrepancy between what it was predicted and the absence of sensory feedback. Therefore, this error can be used to inform the motor system of a malfunction. Furthermore, Heilman and colleagues (1998) proposed that anosognosia is a Ã¢â¬Ëmotor intentional deficitÃ¢â¬â¢ which appears from a failure to form motor intentions. Therefore, if the development of an intention t o move is deficient, then the comparator doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive any instructions about the outline of the movement and the patient considers that the movement has been executed, although no movement has taken place (Gold et. al, 1994). Fotopoulou et al. (2008) conducted a study in which they investigated the role of motor intention in anosognosic patients compared to non-anosognosic patients by detecting whether the anosognosic patients were able to identify the presence or absence of movement focusing only in the visual evidence. False visual feedback of movement in the left paralysed arm was used on four hemiplegic with and four without anosognosic patients. This false visual feedback was delivered using a prosthetic rubber hand. Results showed that patients with anosognosia were more likely than patients without anosognosia to ignore the visual feedback and believe that they moved they hand if there was an intention to move the hand (in the self-generated condition) than when the experimenter moved the rubber hand or when there was no movement. These results support that anosognosia reflects a dominance of motor intention prior to action over the sensory information received after the movement was made (Fotopoul ou et al., 2008). Although the studies presented above do provide a lot of insight in the computational model of awareness and provide an explanation of why these disorders have symptoms such as dysfunctions in directing attention towards a specific stimulus and also about their beliefs of body parts functioning, there are a few limitations to whether these theoretical interpretations can account by their one for the two syndromes. Firstly, although they may co-occur, anosognosia and neglect have also been observed separately. Cocchini, et al. (2009) investigated whether anosognosic patients present with unawareness in a group of 42 left hemisphere damaged patients, using a structured interview and the Visual-Analogue Test for Anosognosia for Motor Impairment (Della Sala, Cocchini, Beschin Cameron, in press). Their results showed that eight anosognosic patients and another twelve patients who were aware of their motor impairments didnÃ¢â¬â¢t showed signs of neglect. These results confirm that anosognosia couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be thought of always co-occurring with neglect. Secondly, these results also suggest that there is a double dissociation between anosognosia and neglect (Bisiach et al., 1986). Dauriac-Le Masson et al. (2002) investigated this double dissociation by looking at two patients with a subacute right hemisphere stroke. Their investigation revealed that one of the patients suffered from a severe left hemiplegia which was associated with unilateral neglect and he showed signs of being aware of his motor impairment, whereas the second patient showed a severe anosognosia for hemiplegia, therefore with unawareness towards his motor impairment. These results suggest that although these two syndromes co-occur, they may rely on independent mechanisms because of their double dissociation. And lastly, both anosognosia and neglect are multifaceted processes (Marcel et al., 2004) and only the dysfunction in the computational model of motor control cannot account for all the symptoms of these two syndromes. To be more specific, even when patients who suffer from neglect and anosognosia are aware of their deficits, they still deny them. House and Hodges (1988) detail the case of an 89-year-old woman who suffered left-side paralysis after a right-hemisphere stroke. Although the experimenters demonstrated that her left arm was completely paralysed and her leg nearly paralysed, she failed to understand the severity of her condition and believed that she could still look after herself and walk, although she was in a wheelchair. Furthermore, Marcel et al. (2004) also described the case of several patients who although they were aware of their paralysed limbs, they still overestimated their abilities and believed they can perform bi-manual activities such as clapping their hands or tying a knot. These patients provide examples of another theory of anosognosia, the motivational theory which the patient denies his/hers deficit in order to maintain unharmed his/hers psychological balance (Weinstein Kahn, 1955; Weinstein, 1991). In conclusion, the focus of the essay was to provide insight into why the cognitiveÃ¢â¬âbehavioural syndromes of neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia occur, and to evaluate to what extent this was true, by paying attention to their theoretical interpretations. As stated before, due to the lesions to the tempo-parietal region, the gyrus and insula there are dysfunctions in attention and beliefs about body parts functionality. The attentional intention model for neglect (together with the attentional-arousal hypothesis and the directional hypokenisia) and the feed-forward model for anosognosia provide a satisfactory explanation for these deficits by suggesting that there is a dysfunction in the motor system. For the neglect patients the lesions affect the arousal which leads to the inability to prepare them for action. For the anosognosic patients the lesions lead to a failure to form motor intentions, to be more specific if the intention to move is impaired , then the comparator doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive instructions about the planned action and the patient considers that the movement has been executed, even if that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen. However, these theoretical interpretations of dysfunctions in motor control cannot account on their own for all the symptoms of neglect and anosognosia. Previous literature suggests that although the incidence of co-occurrence is high, there are cases where anosognosia and neglect appear independently and present double dissociations. Furthermore, as proposed by Marcel et al. (2004) both syndromes are multifaceted syndromes and it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be possible that only one theoretical interpretation can account for these. In conclusion, both anosognosia and neglect are very interesting phenomena which have captured the attention of many researches, however fundamental issues of theoretical interpretations have not still been answered. References: Babinski J. (1914) Contribution a` lÃ¢â¬â¢eÃ ´tude de troubles mentaux dans lÃ¢â¬â¢heÃ ´miplegie organique ceÃ ´reÃ ´brale. Revue Neurologique 27, 845Ã¢â¬â847. Beschin, N., Cocchini, G., Allen, R., Della Sala, S. (2012). Dissociation between anosognosia and neglect demonstrated by mean of a treatment response bias. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22(4), 550-562. Bisiach,E.,Vallar,G.,Perani,D.,Papagno,C.,Berti,A (1986).Unawareness of disease following lesions of the right hemisphere: anosognosia for hemiplegia and anosognosia for hemianopia.Neuropsychologia, 24, 471-482. Bisiach, E., Ricci, R., Modona, M.N. (1998). Visual Awareness and Anisometry of Space Representation in Unilateral Neglect: A Panoramic Investigation by Means of a Line Extension Task. Consciousness and Cognition, 7(3), 327-355. Chambers, C.D., Stokes, M.G., Mattingley, J.B. (2004). Modality specific control of strategic spatial attention in parietal cortex. Neuron, 44(6), 925-930. Cocchini, G., Beschin, N., Cameron, A., Fotopoulou A. Della Sala, S. (2009). Anosognosia for motor impairment following left-brain damage. Neuropsychology, 23, 223-230. Corbetta, M., Miezin, F.M., Shulman, G.L., Petersen, S.E. (1993). A PET study of visuospatial attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 12, 1202Ã¢â¬â1226. Dauriac- Le Masson, V., Mailhan, L., Louis- Dreyfus, A., De Montety, G., Denys, P., Bussel, B., Azouvi, P. (2002). Double dissociation between unilateral neglect and anosognosia. Revue neurologique, 158(4), 427-430. Della Sala S., Cocchini G., Beschin N., Cameron A. (in press).VATAm: Visual-analogue test for anosognosia for motor impairment: A new test to assess awareness for motor impairment. The Clinical Neuropsychologist Fotopoulou, A., Tsakiris, M., Haggard, P., Vagopoulou, A., Rudd, A., Kopelman, M. (2008). The role of motor intention in motor awareness: An experimental study on anosognosia for hemiplegia. Brain, 131, 3432-3442. Frith,C.D.,Blakemore,S.J.,Wolpert,D.M. (2000).Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 355, 1771-8. Gold,M.,Adair,J.C.,Daniel,H.J.,Heilman,K.M. (1994).Anosognosia for hemiplegia: an electrophysiologic investigation of the feed-forward hypothesis,Neurology, 44, 1804. Heilman, K. M. and Valenstien, E. (1972) Frontal lobe neglect in man. Neurology, 22, 660-664. Heilman, K.M, Valenstein E. (1979) Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Annals of Neurology 5, 166- 170. Heilman, K.M., Watson, R.T., Valenstein, E. (1993).Neglect and related disorders. In Heilman, K.M. and Valenstein, E. (Eds.), Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press, Ch. 10, 279-336. Heilman, K.M, Watson, R., Valenstein E. (1994). Localization of lesions in neglect and related disorders. In: Kertez, A.,editor, Localization and Neuroimaging in Neuropsychology. San Diego: Academic Peers, 495-524. Heilman,K.M.,Barret,A.M.,Adair,J.C. (1998). Possible mechanisms of anosognosia: a defect in self awareness.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 355, 1903-1909. Heilman K.M, Valenstein, E. (2003) Clinical Neuropsychology, Fourth Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK Hillis, A., Caramazza, A.(1995). A framework for interpreting distinct pattern of hemispatial neglect. Neurocase, 1, 189-207. House, A. and Hodges, J. (1988). Persistent denial of handicap after infarction of the right basal ganglia: A case study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 51, 112-115. Karnath, H.O., Baier, B., Nagele, T. (2005), Awareness of the functioning of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own limbs mediated by the insular cortex?. Journal of neuroscience, 25(31), 7134-7138. Kortte, K., Hillis A.E.( 2010). Recent Advances in the Understanding of Neglect and Anosognosia Following Right Hemisphere Stroke. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 9(6), 459Ã¢â¬â465. Marcel,A.J.,Tegner,R.,Nimmo-Smith,I. (2004). Anosognosia for plegia: specificity, extension, partiality and disunity of bodily awareness.Cortex, 40, 19-40. Orfei, M.D., Robinson, R.G., Prigatano, G.P., Starkstein, S., Rusch, N., Bria, P., Caltagirone, C., Spalletta, G. (2007). Anosognosia for hemiplegia after stroke is a multifaceted phenomenon: a systematic review of the literature. Brain, 130, 3075-3090. Prigatano, G.P., Matthes, J., Hill, S., Wolf, T.R. Heiserman, J.E. (2011). Anosognosia for hemiplegia with preserved awareness of complete cortical blindness following intracranial haemorrhage. Cortex, 47(10), 1219-1227. Watson, R.T., Heilman,K.M., Cauthen, J.C., King, F.A (1973). Neglect after cingulectomy. Neurology, 23(9), 1003-1007. Watson, R. T., Heilman, K. M., Millar, B. D. and King, F. A. (1974). Neglect after mesencephalic reticular formation lesions. Neurology, 24, 294-298. Weinstein, E.A. and Kahn, R.L. (1955). Denial of illness: Symbolic and physiological aspects, Springfield, IL: Thomas. Weinstein E. A. (1991).Anosognosia and denial of illness. In Prigatano G. P. Schacter D. L. (Eds.), Awareness of deficit after brain injury, 240Ã¢â¬â257.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Events management can be said to have emerged from the increasing commercialisation of popular celebrations, from big affairs such as concerts to small and private gatherings. Bowdin, et al. explained that in certain historical aspects, the increasing importance of events were noted because of the benefits they bring as enumerated through its purpose and objectives. An example noted by the authors were the emergence of the industry as encouraged by political and religious reasons; this happened in the United Kingdom where exhibitions became a popular event that it needed to be sustained. The approach to the sustainability of events, especially as this would lead to the formation of an industry, would then become integral to the management requirements of this practice. Across the world, the management of events would become a more formal approach in organizing festivals and other festivities. Bowdin, et al. therefore presented the following definition of events as follows (14): Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] anything which happens; result; any incidence or occurrence esp (sic) a memorable one; contingency or possibility of occurrence; an item in a programme (of sports, etc.); A type of horseriding competition, often held over three days (three-day event) consisting of three sections ie dressage, cross country riding and show jumping; fortune or fate (obs); an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraising. Ã¢â¬ Based on these definitions, the events that fall under event management are applicable in all aspects. Basically, the last definitiion, Ã¢â¬Å"an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraisingÃ¢â¬ (14) can be said to already encompass what an event is. However, it should be also noted that the fundamentals of events management also refers to the uniqueness of the event, hence, it is memorable. At the same time, an event may have many sub-events such as Ã¢â¬Å"itemsÃ¢â¬ . Last but not the least, as based on the cited definition, an event also includes contingency or possibility of occurrence. This therefore brings up the aspect of events management in which case it is not just about ensuring that the event takes place, but also the management formalises the event in a sense that it is defined by a specific strategy. As previously mentioned, an event in the events management context becomes a project; in this case, the aspects of project management is applied. It is initially important to define what a project is, and according to Bowdin, et al, (267), an event as a project Ã¢â¬Å"produces an asset [Ã¢â¬ ¦] the asset is the ultimate deliverable of the project. The management is the planning, the organizing, leading, and controlling of the projectÃ¢â¬ . Hence, based on these, Bowdin, et al. presented the definition of event management in the following (267): Ã¢â¬Å"The project management of events concentrates on the management process to create the event, not just what happens at the event [Ã¢â¬ ¦] (it) is called the Ã¢â¬ËoverlayÃ¢â¬â¢ as it integrates all the tasks of management. Event management is made up of a number of management areas including planning, leading, marketing, design, control and budgeting, risk management, logistics, staging and evaluation. Each of these areas continuously affect each other over the event life cycleÃ¢â¬ . Shone and Parry, furthermore, mentioned that in order for an event to be managed in a similar context, the event has to be Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ ; based on this, the authors presented the following pointing out the definitions of events that are managed: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leisure events (leisure, sport recreation) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Personal events (weddings, birthdays, anniversaries) Ã¢â¬ ¢ organisational events (commercial, political, charitable, sales) Ã¢â¬ ¢ cultural (ceremonial, sacred, heritage, art, folklore) The Events Management Concept and Practice Event management is therefore a discipline and a practice. There are many concepts and aspects of event management that needs to be considered especially among those who specialise in certain components of the practice. One of the common perceptions of event management is its dimension as a coordinating activities. Silvers (28) mentioned that in event coordination, the coordinators visualise, organise and synchronise the different elements of an event. In addition, in event coordination, the coordinator also identifies the purpose, scope and the program of the event by means of identifying its intent, extent, and content. Another important point raised by Silvers (28) is that, in agreement with the past discussions on the nature of event management as similar or related to project management, the author also further mentioned the processes involved both in the coordination and the management of events. These aspects, for instance, is through the discussion on the Project Scope (28-29): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identifying the needs and requirements of the event including the definition of its purpose and the expected outcomes Ã¢â¬ ¢ the description of the product as spelled out by the type of event Ã¢â¬ ¢ product analysis or the identification of the components of the product Ã¢â¬ ¢ the feasibility of the product as based on the analysis of the resources From these, the event becomes more definite through the design of a Work Breakdown Structure and Activity Schedule (29). Another important approach in event management can be considered in the perceptions of the customers, competition and the sponsors. Silvers discussed the aspect of the consumers and the competition. According to the author, the customers make up the Ã¢â¬Å"marketing realmÃ¢â¬ of the event (30). Hence, it is important to identify a target segment because this helps in the design of the event, from its scope to its marketing to its implementation. Silvers also discussed the competition; for cases such as bars and clubs, any weekend night poses a great amount of competition for any establishment holding an event that night. As the author stressed, it is significant that the bar or club is aware what kind of other events that will take place in another establishment. It is therefore in the strategy of the club or bar owner, along with its hired events specialist, to determine how to best approach competition.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Traci L. Pugh Dr. Amber Reagan-Kendrick ENG 45023-SU-2012-OA Seminar in American Literature 8 August 2012 Gothic Literature: The Fascination with Terror People have an intrinsic fear of the dark and the unknown. While each personÃ¢â¬â¢s level of anxiety and object of terror are different, the fascination to reveal them has inspired Gothic authors such as Mary Shelley, Edgar Allan Poe, Stephen King, and Stephenie Meyer for three centuries. Subjects of these classic tales include vampires, reanimation of the dead, ghosts, murder, witches, and love.These stories and poems can terrify audiences because they can encompass reality of things people cherish with a twist of the impossible. Gothic writers use terror, mystery, and excitement to probe the dark aspects of life by exposing inner human fear. Mary Shelley was a Romantic Gothic author, and it is speculated that Frankenstein symbolizes Ã¢â¬Å"internal conflicts and life experiences with what may have been their manifestations in the fictionalized characters she createdÃ¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Amato 117). She was orphaned at an early age, and death was no stranger to her due to the deaths of her sister and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s first wife.Mary feared giving birth, mainly because her mother died eleven days after giving birth to her, but DÃ¢â¬â¢ Amato proposes that she Ã¢â¬Å"may have believed any child she produced would inherit the repressed, hated, and destructive parts of herselfÃ¢â¬ (122). ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s work may have mirrored her life, but it was common for Gothic authors of this time to write about Ã¢â¬Å"the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams, and their ownÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic UndercurrentsÃ¢â¬ ). The early nineteenth century was a time of fear due to rapid changes in the nation: abolition, the Great Depression, war, and the bank crisis.These events gave Americans the feeling that Ã¢â¬Å"life was an experiment that had gone horribly wrong,Ã¢â¬ and these writers explored this fear with prose (Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic Unde rcurrentsÃ¢â¬ ). This newfound style of writing exposed the dark side of humanity, but it also questioned the mystery of unsolvable problems. These works probed the demons of the nation and the writers. Frankenstein began as Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream in 1816, and her tale of loneliness, reanimating the dead, murder, guilt, and revenge has been dubbed a literary classic.The main character, Victor Frankenstein, believes he has discovered the secret of life and proclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"Darkness had no effect upon my fancy; and a church-yard was to me merely the receptacle of bodies deprived of life, which, from being the seat of beauty and strength, had become food for the wormÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 79). Once the monster is created, it feels abandoned and starts killing. The creature inadvertently causes the death of an innocent girl. Victor realizes his creation is lonely, and nothing more than an abomination, so he decides to destroy it.A journey into the mountains ensues, but a crack in the ice divides their paths. When Frankenstein dies, the monster comes to see him and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Blasted as thou wert, my agony was still superior to thine; for the bitter sting of remorse may not cease to rankle in my wounds until death shall close them for everÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 244). This story reveals the idea that the dead, once reanimated, are like an angry child who lashes out at a parent who has betrayed them. The feeling of abandonment was what Shelley tried to capture in this morbid tale of love and loss, and this theme would continue with future authors.Edgar Allan Poe, considered a Victorian Gothic, was also an orphan whose life seemed to be full of disaster. He suffered an unmerciful surrogate father, was kicked out of the University of Virginia, dropped out of West Point, married his thirteen year old cousin, and lived in poverty with his freelance lifestyle (Doctorow 241). The driving force behind his work was that he embraced his own misery because he believed that his s uffering was natural. His stories were written in the mid-nineteenth century, and people were still afraid of their uncertain futures.Poe used this to his benefit in what he called, Ã¢â¬Å"Imp of the Perverse Ã¢â¬â the force within us that causes us to do just what brings on our destructionÃ¢â¬ (241). This kind of thinking was the basis for many of his stories, and most of his characters were the reason for their own problems and demise. Poe Ã¢â¬Å"worked hard at structuring his tales of aristocratic madmen, self-tormented murderers, neurasthenic necrophiliacs, and other deviant types to produce the greatest possible horrific effects on his readersÃ¢â¬ (Baym 674).He was quite successful in this endeavor, as most people associate PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s name with dark, horrific, murderous tales. His Ã¢â¬Å"Philosophy of CompositionÃ¢â¬ tells of his belief that Ã¢â¬Å"the supreme subject for a poem is the death of a beautiful womanÃ¢â¬ (Doctorow 242). This is evident in one of his most famous poems, Ã¢â¬Å"The Raven. Ã¢â¬ Possibly one of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s most maddening poems, Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ is rhythmic and could be set to music with constant mention of the door, Lenore, evermore, and nevermore. The use of vivid imagery causes the reader to see this black raven sitting on the door pecking at it.The main character is a man grieving for his lost love, Lenore, and he believes the knocking sound is her returning. The raven says but one word, Ã¢â¬Å"Nevermore. Ã¢â¬ The man wonders what this means, and asks the bird if it is a messenger from God or the devil. Again the Raven says, Ã¢â¬Å"Nevermore. Ã¢â¬ Spiraling into madness and grief, he begs the bird, Ã¢â¬Å"Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door. Quoth the Raven, Ã¢â¬ËNevermoreÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Poe 74). The Raven stays at the door and forever torments the man with his repetitive call.This uncertainty about death was a Gothic specialty, and the introduction of animals and their mysterious qualities would prove to inspire future writers. A century later, tales of Modern Horror would build on their macabre roots and incorporate popular culture to terrify readers like never before. Stephen King, often named the master of horror, has petrified audiences with tales of demonic cars, possessed children, undead pets and people, aliens, and the inherent evil in all people. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration stems from Ã¢â¬Å"his own life experiences and fantasies, popular culture, and his reading of archaic burial loreÃ¢â¬ (Nash 151).Even though most literary critics do not agree with his writing style, horror fans are mesmerized by the images he creates. King and Shelley both play on fears Ã¢â¬Å"such as the problematic nature and popular fear of science and technologyÃ¢â¬ (151), but King is Ã¢â¬Å"more willing to tackle explicitly cultural issues as opposed to the traditional Gothic preoccupation with personality and characterÃ¢â¬ (152). Many of KingÃ¢â ¬â¢s stories concentrate on a fear of the dead, but they also raise the question of whether the dead want to come back and the consequences that follow.Love is a powerful thing and people never want to let go of a loved one, but at what expense are they willing to have that person back? Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s scariest tale, Pet Sematary, asks and answers this very question by illustrating a modern family and the horrific, yet normal, happenings that tear the family apart and invoke the need for the supernatural. The Creeds move to a new house in Maine to start a new life. Mr. Creed is a doctor at the University, and he befriends the old neighbor next door. The neighbor tells of an Indian burial ground beyond the pet cemetery where the dead can come back.The family cat, Church, is killed by a truck on the busy road in front of the house, and Mr. Creed desperately buries the body in the Ã¢â¬Å"magic circleÃ¢â¬ of the burial ground to keep from telling this horror to his daughter. The cat comes back to life, but is Ã¢â¬Å"changed, if not psychoticÃ¢â¬ (Nash 156). Soon, the youngest son, Gage, meets the same disastrous fate as the cat. The father is consumed with grief and frantically buries the little boy in the same place. Gage comes back in the same fashion as the cat and kills his mother and the neighbor.Even though the father is a doctor, and knows what the monster that resembles his son is capable of, he again makes a journey to the burial ground to bury his wife. He sits and waits for her to arrive. Love makes people desperate and willing to cross unrealistic boundaries in order to escape pain. Writers have used the connection between love and death to explore new avenues in horror. Stephenie Meyer has spellbound audiences with her Twilight series by introducing us to a world of supernatural beings, jealousy, ancient pacts, and love.Much like her Gothic predecessors, Meyers uses her dreams and popular culture to inspire her tales. Her vampires differ from the earlier versions in that Ã¢â¬Å"our vampires reflect our fears of new, changing or dissolved boundariesÃ¢â¬ (Mutch 76). New topics, such as Ã¢â¬Å"violent intolerance in the U. S. and elsewhereÃ¢â¬ are revealed by her characters going Ã¢â¬Å"to great lengths to hide their true identityÃ¢â¬ (78). This new generation of creatures reflect the thirst for blood and supernatural strength of the original monsters that began this era, but a regard for human life sets these apart.The overall view of the Twilight series, by Stephenie Meyer, is that love conquers all, even death. Much like Gothic literature itself, this story involves centuries of vampires hiding from the light to maintain existence among their prey. The human girl, Bella, is in love with a vampire, Edward, and they know that being together is impossible. She is willing to end her life and join his dark world, but he is unwilling to claim her mortality. In the same spirit as Frankenstein, Edward sees his cre ator as a father figure, but laments his own vile existence.It is revealed that her best friend, Jacob, who is also in love with her, is a werewolf. The vampires and the werewolves have a pact, but it will be breached if Bella joins the vampires. There are constant struggles between the humans, vampires, and the werewolves, but the undying love between Bella and Edward is unyielding. The two finally marry, and a baby is conceived that almost kills Bella. Although he has fought it diligently, Edward is forced to ferociously inject his venom into her lifeless body to save her in childbirth.The baby is half vampire and human, and instantly demonstrates supernatural powers, and captivates Jacob, which ends the battle between the coven and the clan. The book ends with a glimpse into the beauty of becoming a vampire when Bella remembers the first moments after she wakes as a newborn vampire: Ã¢â¬Å"his face when IÃ¢â¬â¢d opened my eyes to my new life, to the endless dawn of immortality . . . that first kiss . . . that first night . . . Ã¢â¬ (Meyer 753). The Twilight series is a love story with interjections of paranormal powers and the desire to want the things that cannot be obtained.This tale has consumed many and launched the Ã¢â¬Å"TwihardÃ¢â¬ generation. Meyer made vampires and werewolves vicious and bloodthirsty, but beautiful; unlike their nineteenth century counterparts, who burst into flames in the sunlight and transformed into hideous, drooling monsters, these beautiful creatures glitter in the sunlight and resemble overgrown dogs. Although Meyer made this less horrific than older horror stories, her series encouraged younger generations to discover the beauty of literature again. Stephen King once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Death is a mystery, and burial is a secretÃ¢â¬ (9).Although it is often grotesque, demonic, and depraved, people have an inherent need to explore the divide between good and evil, the known and unknown, and this world and the next. These tales have endured, yet changed, over the last three centuries. Future writers of the macabre will most assuredly follow in their predecessorsÃ¢â¬â¢ footsteps and adapt to cultural changes in their own style. As long as people have inner demons, there will be a need for writers to expose them. Even though these horror classics are classified as fiction, what makes them terrifying is that they mimic the reality of everyday life. Works CitedBaym, Nina, ed. Ã¢â¬Å"Edgar Allan Poe. Ã¢â¬ The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 7th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Norton, 2008. 671-674. Print. DÃ¢â¬â¢Amato, Barbara. Ã¢â¬Å"Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein: an orphaned authorÃ¢â¬â¢s dream and journey toward integration. Ã¢â¬ Modern Psychoanalysis. 34. 1 (2009): 117-135. Web. 7 Aug 2012. Doctrow, E. L. Ã¢â¬Å"Our Edgar. Ã¢â¬ Virginia Quarterly Review. 82. 4 (2006): 240-247. Web 7 Aug 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic Undercurrents. Ã¢â¬ American Passages: A Literary Survey. Annenberg Learne r, n. d. Web 7 Aug 2012. King, Stephen. Pet Sematary. 1st ed. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. , 1984. Print. Meyer, Stephenie. Breaking Dawn. st ed. New York: Atom Books, 2009. Print. Mutch, Deborah. Ã¢â¬Å"Coming Out of the Coffin: The Vampire and Transnationalism in the Twilight and Sookie Stackhouse Series. Ã¢â¬ Critical Survey. 23. 2 (2011): 75-90. Web. 7 Aug 2012. Nash, Jesse. Ã¢â¬Å"Postmodern Gothic: Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Pet Sematary. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Popular Culture. 30. 4 (1997): 151-160. Web. 7 Aug 2012. Poe, Edgar Allan. The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe With Selections From His Critical Writings. Expanded. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc. Alfre A. Knopf. Inc.. 1992. Print. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. 2nd ed. Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999. Print.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
LITERATURE REVIEW: 2.1. Introduction NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s population is about 173.6 million people, this is on a survey carried out by the World Bank (World Bank data bank 2013). The average population density according to (UNDP, 2012 Revision) is approximately 173 persons per square kilometre, making Nigeria one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Though Lagos the former capital is the smallest state in Nigeria in terms of land mass with an area of 356,861 hectares but currently, it possesses the highest population which is over 17.5million as at 2006 census, (this is from parallel count conducted by the state during the national population census). With a projected growth rate of about 3.2%, the population of Lagos could be said to be over 21 million. (Population- Lagos State Government, 2014) Further analysis shows that Metropolitan Lagos, has an area covering of about 37% of the land area of the present Lagos State which accommodates over 85% of the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Hence the population growth is projected to be 600,000 per annum with a population density of about 4,193 persons per sq. km. The average density of persons living per square kilometer in the built-up areas of metropolitan Lagos is about 20,000 persons and the current demographic trend analysis shows 8% population growth rate for Lagos state which in turn represent 36.8% of entire Nigerian urban population that was estimated by the World Bank report of 1996 to be 49.8 million people. Therefore withShow MoreRelatedCauses Of Unemployment In Nigeria1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Unemployment describes the condition of the people without jobs. 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Clinics are mostly operated byRead MoreReproductive Health Knowledge And Unsafe Induced Abortion Among Female Adolescent1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesABSTRACT CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Statement of the problem 1.2 Research Question 1.3 General aim of study 1.4 Objective of study 1.5 Justification of study 1.6 Study of study 1.7 Scope and limitation of study 1.8 Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO :LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 2.0 Introduction 2.1Reproductive health 2.3 Sexual and reproductive health 2.4 Knowledge of contraception and its usage among adolescents in Nigeria 2.5 Incidence of unsafe induced abortionRead MoreThe Conflict Between The Muslims And The North1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesregions of the country. In the years 1947 to 1959, the Nigerian leaders came together to try to come to an agreement to resolve the political and religious conflicts between the north (Muslims) and the south (Christians). 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