Monday, January 27, 2020
CognitiveÃ¢â¬âbehavioural Syndromes of Neglect and Anosognosia Considering the neuropsychological diseases discussed during the course, critically compare and discuss theoretical interpretations of at least two syndromes Consciousness is one of the most interesting phenomena of the human mind. Consciousness refers to the integration of the cognitive experiences about self and the external environment (Orfei et al., 2007). However, when this psychological function is damaged, it may lead to dysfunctions in the attention and awareness of personal identity. The focus of the following essay is to provide insight into why the cognitiveÃ¢â¬âbehavioural syndromes of neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia that occur following right hemisphere stroke develop, and to evaluate to what extent this is true, taking into consideration their theoretical interpretations. Anosognosia has been defined by Babinsky (1914) as an impairment leading to unawareness of neurological and cognitive deficits following a brain injury. Individuals who suffer from anosognosia present with motor impairments which lead to gait and self-care deficits and are unaware of their impairments in functioning (Kortte Hillis, 2010). The syndrome of anosognosia often co-occurs with visuo-spacial neglect (Prigatano et al., 2011). Heilman, Watson and Valenstein (1994) defined neglect as a deterioration in attention towards or in response to a stimuli, which is not attributable to a motor or sensory impairment. Neglect is presented as a spectrum, with a variety of forms based on the regions of the lesion, the mode of outputs, reference frame and the sensory modality (Hillis Caramazza, 1995). Alongside their co-occurrence, anosognosia and neglect also overlap in terms of lesion sites, to be more specific, the right temporo-parietal junction, the superior and middle temporal gyri and the right insula (Beschin, Cocchini, Allen Della Sala, 2012). The lesion in the right temporo-parietal junction is extremely important in mechanisms of selective attention. More recent neuroimaging studies have recommended that parts of the parietal and temporal cortex are creating a supramodal structure that interposes goal-directed attention in multiple sensory modalities (Chambers, Stokes Mattingley, 2004). Furthermore, neuroimaging studies show that the insula is very important in self-awareness and in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s convictions about the functioning of their body parts (Karnath, Baier Nagele, 2005). Taking these in consideration, a lesion in these areas will lead to a dysfunction in directing attention towards a specific stimulus and about their beliefs of body parts functioning, therefore affecting the motor system. The two theoretical interpretations that provide a link between anosognosia and neglect, taking in consideration the dysfunctions presented earlier, are the attentional interpretation model for neglect and the feed-forward model for anosognosia. The attentional interpretation model is a model proposed by Heilman et al. (1993) which states that each hemisphere is provided with its own attentional neurological system, with the attentional system in the right hemisphere directing attention towards both sides of the visual field, whereas the attentional system in the left hemisphere directing attention only towards the right visual field. Therefore, if there is a damage to the left hemisphere, there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be a severe right neglect, whereas if there is a lesion to the right hemisphere, the patient will be unable to direct his/hers attention to the left visual field (Bisiach et al., 1998). Corbetta et al. (1993) conducted a PET study on 24 healthy volunteers in order to identify what are the neural systems involved in changing spatial attention towards a visual stimulus in the right or left visual field. Results showed that the right parietal cortex was activated when the participant was required to shift their attention in each visual field, whereas the left parietal lobe was active only when the participants had to change their attention to the right visual field. These finding suggest that the parietal and frontal regions control different aspects of special selection and also support the model proposed by Heilman et al. (1993). However, the attentional interpretation model cannot account for the dysfunctions in the motor system on its own. Therefore, we have to also take in consideration the attentional-arousal hypothesis and the directional hypokenisia. The attentional-arousal hypothesis suggests that neglect is predominantly a form of inattention emerging from the failure of triggering arousal that is needed to activate the neuronal systems necessary for spatial attention (Heilman Valenstien, 1972; Watson et al., 1973, 1974). Furthermore, the attentional hypothesis appears to be in close connection with the motor intention, since when one is directing his/hers attention towards a specific location, one is also ready to perform an action in that direction (Heilman Valenstien, 2003). Directional hypokenisia suggests that patients who suffer from neglect are reluctant in initiating movements towards the contralesional side. Moreover, even when patients are directing attention towards the neglected side and have imposed on them a strategy, their performance not only remained abnormal, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t improve (Heilman Valenstien, 1979). In a study conducted by Heilman and Valenties (1979), six patients with neglect were asked to identify a letter that was presented either to the left or right at the end of a line, before bisecting it. The task included lines that were placed at either the left of the body midline, the right, or the centre. Results showed that participants performed significantly better when the line was placed to the right side of the body rather than the left side. These results suggest that the neglect syndrome is a defect in the orienting response. Heilman and Valenstien (1979) suggested that this response appears in anticipation of an action, using the increased arousal to lower the sensory threshold. Therefore, lesions inducing neglect are affecting the arousal (as previously mentioned via the attentional-arousal hypothesis), leading to the inability of the hemisphere to prepare for the action. Based on the same dysfunction of the computational model of motor control is the feed-forward model for anosognosia. More recent theories established on the recent computational models of motor control proposed by Frith et al. (2000), suggest that anosognosia results from an abnormality in motor planning. This theory suggests that, under normal circumstances, in order to develop the intention to move, Ã¢â¬Å"forward modelsÃ¢â¬ are being used in order to generate accurate indicators about the approaching sensory feedback. However, if an intended movement is not executed as planned, than a comparator will detect a discrepancy between what it was predicted and the absence of sensory feedback. Therefore, this error can be used to inform the motor system of a malfunction. Furthermore, Heilman and colleagues (1998) proposed that anosognosia is a Ã¢â¬Ëmotor intentional deficitÃ¢â¬â¢ which appears from a failure to form motor intentions. Therefore, if the development of an intention t o move is deficient, then the comparator doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive any instructions about the outline of the movement and the patient considers that the movement has been executed, although no movement has taken place (Gold et. al, 1994). Fotopoulou et al. (2008) conducted a study in which they investigated the role of motor intention in anosognosic patients compared to non-anosognosic patients by detecting whether the anosognosic patients were able to identify the presence or absence of movement focusing only in the visual evidence. False visual feedback of movement in the left paralysed arm was used on four hemiplegic with and four without anosognosic patients. This false visual feedback was delivered using a prosthetic rubber hand. Results showed that patients with anosognosia were more likely than patients without anosognosia to ignore the visual feedback and believe that they moved they hand if there was an intention to move the hand (in the self-generated condition) than when the experimenter moved the rubber hand or when there was no movement. These results support that anosognosia reflects a dominance of motor intention prior to action over the sensory information received after the movement was made (Fotopoul ou et al., 2008). Although the studies presented above do provide a lot of insight in the computational model of awareness and provide an explanation of why these disorders have symptoms such as dysfunctions in directing attention towards a specific stimulus and also about their beliefs of body parts functioning, there are a few limitations to whether these theoretical interpretations can account by their one for the two syndromes. Firstly, although they may co-occur, anosognosia and neglect have also been observed separately. Cocchini, et al. (2009) investigated whether anosognosic patients present with unawareness in a group of 42 left hemisphere damaged patients, using a structured interview and the Visual-Analogue Test for Anosognosia for Motor Impairment (Della Sala, Cocchini, Beschin Cameron, in press). Their results showed that eight anosognosic patients and another twelve patients who were aware of their motor impairments didnÃ¢â¬â¢t showed signs of neglect. These results confirm that anosognosia couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be thought of always co-occurring with neglect. Secondly, these results also suggest that there is a double dissociation between anosognosia and neglect (Bisiach et al., 1986). Dauriac-Le Masson et al. (2002) investigated this double dissociation by looking at two patients with a subacute right hemisphere stroke. Their investigation revealed that one of the patients suffered from a severe left hemiplegia which was associated with unilateral neglect and he showed signs of being aware of his motor impairment, whereas the second patient showed a severe anosognosia for hemiplegia, therefore with unawareness towards his motor impairment. These results suggest that although these two syndromes co-occur, they may rely on independent mechanisms because of their double dissociation. And lastly, both anosognosia and neglect are multifaceted processes (Marcel et al., 2004) and only the dysfunction in the computational model of motor control cannot account for all the symptoms of these two syndromes. To be more specific, even when patients who suffer from neglect and anosognosia are aware of their deficits, they still deny them. House and Hodges (1988) detail the case of an 89-year-old woman who suffered left-side paralysis after a right-hemisphere stroke. Although the experimenters demonstrated that her left arm was completely paralysed and her leg nearly paralysed, she failed to understand the severity of her condition and believed that she could still look after herself and walk, although she was in a wheelchair. Furthermore, Marcel et al. (2004) also described the case of several patients who although they were aware of their paralysed limbs, they still overestimated their abilities and believed they can perform bi-manual activities such as clapping their hands or tying a knot. These patients provide examples of another theory of anosognosia, the motivational theory which the patient denies his/hers deficit in order to maintain unharmed his/hers psychological balance (Weinstein Kahn, 1955; Weinstein, 1991). In conclusion, the focus of the essay was to provide insight into why the cognitiveÃ¢â¬âbehavioural syndromes of neglect and anosognosia for hemiplegia occur, and to evaluate to what extent this was true, by paying attention to their theoretical interpretations. As stated before, due to the lesions to the tempo-parietal region, the gyrus and insula there are dysfunctions in attention and beliefs about body parts functionality. The attentional intention model for neglect (together with the attentional-arousal hypothesis and the directional hypokenisia) and the feed-forward model for anosognosia provide a satisfactory explanation for these deficits by suggesting that there is a dysfunction in the motor system. For the neglect patients the lesions affect the arousal which leads to the inability to prepare them for action. For the anosognosic patients the lesions lead to a failure to form motor intentions, to be more specific if the intention to move is impaired , then the comparator doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive instructions about the planned action and the patient considers that the movement has been executed, even if that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen. However, these theoretical interpretations of dysfunctions in motor control cannot account on their own for all the symptoms of neglect and anosognosia. Previous literature suggests that although the incidence of co-occurrence is high, there are cases where anosognosia and neglect appear independently and present double dissociations. Furthermore, as proposed by Marcel et al. (2004) both syndromes are multifaceted syndromes and it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be possible that only one theoretical interpretation can account for these. In conclusion, both anosognosia and neglect are very interesting phenomena which have captured the attention of many researches, however fundamental issues of theoretical interpretations have not still been answered. References: Babinski J. (1914) Contribution a` lÃ¢â¬â¢eÃ ´tude de troubles mentaux dans lÃ¢â¬â¢heÃ ´miplegie organique ceÃ ´reÃ ´brale. Revue Neurologique 27, 845Ã¢â¬â847. Beschin, N., Cocchini, G., Allen, R., Della Sala, S. (2012). Dissociation between anosognosia and neglect demonstrated by mean of a treatment response bias. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22(4), 550-562. Bisiach,E.,Vallar,G.,Perani,D.,Papagno,C.,Berti,A (1986).Unawareness of disease following lesions of the right hemisphere: anosognosia for hemiplegia and anosognosia for hemianopia.Neuropsychologia, 24, 471-482. Bisiach, E., Ricci, R., Modona, M.N. (1998). Visual Awareness and Anisometry of Space Representation in Unilateral Neglect: A Panoramic Investigation by Means of a Line Extension Task. Consciousness and Cognition, 7(3), 327-355. Chambers, C.D., Stokes, M.G., Mattingley, J.B. (2004). Modality specific control of strategic spatial attention in parietal cortex. Neuron, 44(6), 925-930. Cocchini, G., Beschin, N., Cameron, A., Fotopoulou A. Della Sala, S. (2009). Anosognosia for motor impairment following left-brain damage. Neuropsychology, 23, 223-230. Corbetta, M., Miezin, F.M., Shulman, G.L., Petersen, S.E. (1993). A PET study of visuospatial attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 12, 1202Ã¢â¬â1226. Dauriac- Le Masson, V., Mailhan, L., Louis- Dreyfus, A., De Montety, G., Denys, P., Bussel, B., Azouvi, P. (2002). Double dissociation between unilateral neglect and anosognosia. Revue neurologique, 158(4), 427-430. Della Sala S., Cocchini G., Beschin N., Cameron A. (in press).VATAm: Visual-analogue test for anosognosia for motor impairment: A new test to assess awareness for motor impairment. The Clinical Neuropsychologist Fotopoulou, A., Tsakiris, M., Haggard, P., Vagopoulou, A., Rudd, A., Kopelman, M. (2008). The role of motor intention in motor awareness: An experimental study on anosognosia for hemiplegia. Brain, 131, 3432-3442. Frith,C.D.,Blakemore,S.J.,Wolpert,D.M. (2000).Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 355, 1771-8. Gold,M.,Adair,J.C.,Daniel,H.J.,Heilman,K.M. (1994).Anosognosia for hemiplegia: an electrophysiologic investigation of the feed-forward hypothesis,Neurology, 44, 1804. Heilman, K. M. and Valenstien, E. (1972) Frontal lobe neglect in man. Neurology, 22, 660-664. Heilman, K.M, Valenstein E. (1979) Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Annals of Neurology 5, 166- 170. Heilman, K.M., Watson, R.T., Valenstein, E. (1993).Neglect and related disorders. In Heilman, K.M. and Valenstein, E. (Eds.), Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press, Ch. 10, 279-336. Heilman, K.M, Watson, R., Valenstein E. (1994). Localization of lesions in neglect and related disorders. In: Kertez, A.,editor, Localization and Neuroimaging in Neuropsychology. San Diego: Academic Peers, 495-524. Heilman,K.M.,Barret,A.M.,Adair,J.C. (1998). Possible mechanisms of anosognosia: a defect in self awareness.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 355, 1903-1909. Heilman K.M, Valenstein, E. (2003) Clinical Neuropsychology, Fourth Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK Hillis, A., Caramazza, A.(1995). A framework for interpreting distinct pattern of hemispatial neglect. Neurocase, 1, 189-207. House, A. and Hodges, J. (1988). Persistent denial of handicap after infarction of the right basal ganglia: A case study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 51, 112-115. Karnath, H.O., Baier, B., Nagele, T. (2005), Awareness of the functioning of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own limbs mediated by the insular cortex?. Journal of neuroscience, 25(31), 7134-7138. Kortte, K., Hillis A.E.( 2010). Recent Advances in the Understanding of Neglect and Anosognosia Following Right Hemisphere Stroke. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 9(6), 459Ã¢â¬â465. Marcel,A.J.,Tegner,R.,Nimmo-Smith,I. (2004). Anosognosia for plegia: specificity, extension, partiality and disunity of bodily awareness.Cortex, 40, 19-40. Orfei, M.D., Robinson, R.G., Prigatano, G.P., Starkstein, S., Rusch, N., Bria, P., Caltagirone, C., Spalletta, G. (2007). Anosognosia for hemiplegia after stroke is a multifaceted phenomenon: a systematic review of the literature. Brain, 130, 3075-3090. Prigatano, G.P., Matthes, J., Hill, S., Wolf, T.R. Heiserman, J.E. (2011). Anosognosia for hemiplegia with preserved awareness of complete cortical blindness following intracranial haemorrhage. Cortex, 47(10), 1219-1227. Watson, R.T., Heilman,K.M., Cauthen, J.C., King, F.A (1973). Neglect after cingulectomy. Neurology, 23(9), 1003-1007. Watson, R. T., Heilman, K. M., Millar, B. D. and King, F. A. (1974). Neglect after mesencephalic reticular formation lesions. Neurology, 24, 294-298. Weinstein, E.A. and Kahn, R.L. (1955). Denial of illness: Symbolic and physiological aspects, Springfield, IL: Thomas. Weinstein E. A. (1991).Anosognosia and denial of illness. In Prigatano G. P. Schacter D. L. (Eds.), Awareness of deficit after brain injury, 240Ã¢â¬â257.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Events management can be said to have emerged from the increasing commercialisation of popular celebrations, from big affairs such as concerts to small and private gatherings. Bowdin, et al. explained that in certain historical aspects, the increasing importance of events were noted because of the benefits they bring as enumerated through its purpose and objectives. An example noted by the authors were the emergence of the industry as encouraged by political and religious reasons; this happened in the United Kingdom where exhibitions became a popular event that it needed to be sustained. The approach to the sustainability of events, especially as this would lead to the formation of an industry, would then become integral to the management requirements of this practice. Across the world, the management of events would become a more formal approach in organizing festivals and other festivities. Bowdin, et al. therefore presented the following definition of events as follows (14): Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] anything which happens; result; any incidence or occurrence esp (sic) a memorable one; contingency or possibility of occurrence; an item in a programme (of sports, etc.); A type of horseriding competition, often held over three days (three-day event) consisting of three sections ie dressage, cross country riding and show jumping; fortune or fate (obs); an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraising. Ã¢â¬ Based on these definitions, the events that fall under event management are applicable in all aspects. Basically, the last definitiion, Ã¢â¬Å"an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraisingÃ¢â¬ (14) can be said to already encompass what an event is. However, it should be also noted that the fundamentals of events management also refers to the uniqueness of the event, hence, it is memorable. At the same time, an event may have many sub-events such as Ã¢â¬Å"itemsÃ¢â¬ . Last but not the least, as based on the cited definition, an event also includes contingency or possibility of occurrence. This therefore brings up the aspect of events management in which case it is not just about ensuring that the event takes place, but also the management formalises the event in a sense that it is defined by a specific strategy. As previously mentioned, an event in the events management context becomes a project; in this case, the aspects of project management is applied. It is initially important to define what a project is, and according to Bowdin, et al, (267), an event as a project Ã¢â¬Å"produces an asset [Ã¢â¬ ¦] the asset is the ultimate deliverable of the project. The management is the planning, the organizing, leading, and controlling of the projectÃ¢â¬ . Hence, based on these, Bowdin, et al. presented the definition of event management in the following (267): Ã¢â¬Å"The project management of events concentrates on the management process to create the event, not just what happens at the event [Ã¢â¬ ¦] (it) is called the Ã¢â¬ËoverlayÃ¢â¬â¢ as it integrates all the tasks of management. Event management is made up of a number of management areas including planning, leading, marketing, design, control and budgeting, risk management, logistics, staging and evaluation. Each of these areas continuously affect each other over the event life cycleÃ¢â¬ . Shone and Parry, furthermore, mentioned that in order for an event to be managed in a similar context, the event has to be Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ ; based on this, the authors presented the following pointing out the definitions of events that are managed: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leisure events (leisure, sport recreation) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Personal events (weddings, birthdays, anniversaries) Ã¢â¬ ¢ organisational events (commercial, political, charitable, sales) Ã¢â¬ ¢ cultural (ceremonial, sacred, heritage, art, folklore) The Events Management Concept and Practice Event management is therefore a discipline and a practice. There are many concepts and aspects of event management that needs to be considered especially among those who specialise in certain components of the practice. One of the common perceptions of event management is its dimension as a coordinating activities. Silvers (28) mentioned that in event coordination, the coordinators visualise, organise and synchronise the different elements of an event. In addition, in event coordination, the coordinator also identifies the purpose, scope and the program of the event by means of identifying its intent, extent, and content. Another important point raised by Silvers (28) is that, in agreement with the past discussions on the nature of event management as similar or related to project management, the author also further mentioned the processes involved both in the coordination and the management of events. These aspects, for instance, is through the discussion on the Project Scope (28-29): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identifying the needs and requirements of the event including the definition of its purpose and the expected outcomes Ã¢â¬ ¢ the description of the product as spelled out by the type of event Ã¢â¬ ¢ product analysis or the identification of the components of the product Ã¢â¬ ¢ the feasibility of the product as based on the analysis of the resources From these, the event becomes more definite through the design of a Work Breakdown Structure and Activity Schedule (29). Another important approach in event management can be considered in the perceptions of the customers, competition and the sponsors. Silvers discussed the aspect of the consumers and the competition. According to the author, the customers make up the Ã¢â¬Å"marketing realmÃ¢â¬ of the event (30). Hence, it is important to identify a target segment because this helps in the design of the event, from its scope to its marketing to its implementation. Silvers also discussed the competition; for cases such as bars and clubs, any weekend night poses a great amount of competition for any establishment holding an event that night. As the author stressed, it is significant that the bar or club is aware what kind of other events that will take place in another establishment. It is therefore in the strategy of the club or bar owner, along with its hired events specialist, to determine how to best approach competition.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Traci L. Pugh Dr. Amber Reagan-Kendrick ENG 45023-SU-2012-OA Seminar in American Literature 8 August 2012 Gothic Literature: The Fascination with Terror People have an intrinsic fear of the dark and the unknown. While each personÃ¢â¬â¢s level of anxiety and object of terror are different, the fascination to reveal them has inspired Gothic authors such as Mary Shelley, Edgar Allan Poe, Stephen King, and Stephenie Meyer for three centuries. Subjects of these classic tales include vampires, reanimation of the dead, ghosts, murder, witches, and love.These stories and poems can terrify audiences because they can encompass reality of things people cherish with a twist of the impossible. Gothic writers use terror, mystery, and excitement to probe the dark aspects of life by exposing inner human fear. Mary Shelley was a Romantic Gothic author, and it is speculated that Frankenstein symbolizes Ã¢â¬Å"internal conflicts and life experiences with what may have been their manifestations in the fictionalized characters she createdÃ¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Amato 117). She was orphaned at an early age, and death was no stranger to her due to the deaths of her sister and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s first wife.Mary feared giving birth, mainly because her mother died eleven days after giving birth to her, but DÃ¢â¬â¢ Amato proposes that she Ã¢â¬Å"may have believed any child she produced would inherit the repressed, hated, and destructive parts of herselfÃ¢â¬ (122). ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s work may have mirrored her life, but it was common for Gothic authors of this time to write about Ã¢â¬Å"the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams, and their ownÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic UndercurrentsÃ¢â¬ ). The early nineteenth century was a time of fear due to rapid changes in the nation: abolition, the Great Depression, war, and the bank crisis.These events gave Americans the feeling that Ã¢â¬Å"life was an experiment that had gone horribly wrong,Ã¢â¬ and these writers explored this fear with prose (Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic Unde rcurrentsÃ¢â¬ ). This newfound style of writing exposed the dark side of humanity, but it also questioned the mystery of unsolvable problems. These works probed the demons of the nation and the writers. Frankenstein began as Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream in 1816, and her tale of loneliness, reanimating the dead, murder, guilt, and revenge has been dubbed a literary classic.The main character, Victor Frankenstein, believes he has discovered the secret of life and proclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"Darkness had no effect upon my fancy; and a church-yard was to me merely the receptacle of bodies deprived of life, which, from being the seat of beauty and strength, had become food for the wormÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 79). Once the monster is created, it feels abandoned and starts killing. The creature inadvertently causes the death of an innocent girl. Victor realizes his creation is lonely, and nothing more than an abomination, so he decides to destroy it.A journey into the mountains ensues, but a crack in the ice divides their paths. When Frankenstein dies, the monster comes to see him and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Blasted as thou wert, my agony was still superior to thine; for the bitter sting of remorse may not cease to rankle in my wounds until death shall close them for everÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 244). This story reveals the idea that the dead, once reanimated, are like an angry child who lashes out at a parent who has betrayed them. The feeling of abandonment was what Shelley tried to capture in this morbid tale of love and loss, and this theme would continue with future authors.Edgar Allan Poe, considered a Victorian Gothic, was also an orphan whose life seemed to be full of disaster. He suffered an unmerciful surrogate father, was kicked out of the University of Virginia, dropped out of West Point, married his thirteen year old cousin, and lived in poverty with his freelance lifestyle (Doctorow 241). The driving force behind his work was that he embraced his own misery because he believed that his s uffering was natural. His stories were written in the mid-nineteenth century, and people were still afraid of their uncertain futures.Poe used this to his benefit in what he called, Ã¢â¬Å"Imp of the Perverse Ã¢â¬â the force within us that causes us to do just what brings on our destructionÃ¢â¬ (241). This kind of thinking was the basis for many of his stories, and most of his characters were the reason for their own problems and demise. Poe Ã¢â¬Å"worked hard at structuring his tales of aristocratic madmen, self-tormented murderers, neurasthenic necrophiliacs, and other deviant types to produce the greatest possible horrific effects on his readersÃ¢â¬ (Baym 674).He was quite successful in this endeavor, as most people associate PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s name with dark, horrific, murderous tales. His Ã¢â¬Å"Philosophy of CompositionÃ¢â¬ tells of his belief that Ã¢â¬Å"the supreme subject for a poem is the death of a beautiful womanÃ¢â¬ (Doctorow 242). This is evident in one of his most famous poems, Ã¢â¬Å"The Raven. Ã¢â¬ Possibly one of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s most maddening poems, Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ is rhythmic and could be set to music with constant mention of the door, Lenore, evermore, and nevermore. The use of vivid imagery causes the reader to see this black raven sitting on the door pecking at it.The main character is a man grieving for his lost love, Lenore, and he believes the knocking sound is her returning. The raven says but one word, Ã¢â¬Å"Nevermore. Ã¢â¬ The man wonders what this means, and asks the bird if it is a messenger from God or the devil. Again the Raven says, Ã¢â¬Å"Nevermore. Ã¢â¬ Spiraling into madness and grief, he begs the bird, Ã¢â¬Å"Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door. Quoth the Raven, Ã¢â¬ËNevermoreÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Poe 74). The Raven stays at the door and forever torments the man with his repetitive call.This uncertainty about death was a Gothic specialty, and the introduction of animals and their mysterious qualities would prove to inspire future writers. A century later, tales of Modern Horror would build on their macabre roots and incorporate popular culture to terrify readers like never before. Stephen King, often named the master of horror, has petrified audiences with tales of demonic cars, possessed children, undead pets and people, aliens, and the inherent evil in all people. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration stems from Ã¢â¬Å"his own life experiences and fantasies, popular culture, and his reading of archaic burial loreÃ¢â¬ (Nash 151).Even though most literary critics do not agree with his writing style, horror fans are mesmerized by the images he creates. King and Shelley both play on fears Ã¢â¬Å"such as the problematic nature and popular fear of science and technologyÃ¢â¬ (151), but King is Ã¢â¬Å"more willing to tackle explicitly cultural issues as opposed to the traditional Gothic preoccupation with personality and characterÃ¢â¬ (152). Many of KingÃ¢â ¬â¢s stories concentrate on a fear of the dead, but they also raise the question of whether the dead want to come back and the consequences that follow.Love is a powerful thing and people never want to let go of a loved one, but at what expense are they willing to have that person back? Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s scariest tale, Pet Sematary, asks and answers this very question by illustrating a modern family and the horrific, yet normal, happenings that tear the family apart and invoke the need for the supernatural. The Creeds move to a new house in Maine to start a new life. Mr. Creed is a doctor at the University, and he befriends the old neighbor next door. The neighbor tells of an Indian burial ground beyond the pet cemetery where the dead can come back.The family cat, Church, is killed by a truck on the busy road in front of the house, and Mr. Creed desperately buries the body in the Ã¢â¬Å"magic circleÃ¢â¬ of the burial ground to keep from telling this horror to his daughter. The cat comes back to life, but is Ã¢â¬Å"changed, if not psychoticÃ¢â¬ (Nash 156). Soon, the youngest son, Gage, meets the same disastrous fate as the cat. The father is consumed with grief and frantically buries the little boy in the same place. Gage comes back in the same fashion as the cat and kills his mother and the neighbor.Even though the father is a doctor, and knows what the monster that resembles his son is capable of, he again makes a journey to the burial ground to bury his wife. He sits and waits for her to arrive. Love makes people desperate and willing to cross unrealistic boundaries in order to escape pain. Writers have used the connection between love and death to explore new avenues in horror. Stephenie Meyer has spellbound audiences with her Twilight series by introducing us to a world of supernatural beings, jealousy, ancient pacts, and love.Much like her Gothic predecessors, Meyers uses her dreams and popular culture to inspire her tales. Her vampires differ from the earlier versions in that Ã¢â¬Å"our vampires reflect our fears of new, changing or dissolved boundariesÃ¢â¬ (Mutch 76). New topics, such as Ã¢â¬Å"violent intolerance in the U. S. and elsewhereÃ¢â¬ are revealed by her characters going Ã¢â¬Å"to great lengths to hide their true identityÃ¢â¬ (78). This new generation of creatures reflect the thirst for blood and supernatural strength of the original monsters that began this era, but a regard for human life sets these apart.The overall view of the Twilight series, by Stephenie Meyer, is that love conquers all, even death. Much like Gothic literature itself, this story involves centuries of vampires hiding from the light to maintain existence among their prey. The human girl, Bella, is in love with a vampire, Edward, and they know that being together is impossible. She is willing to end her life and join his dark world, but he is unwilling to claim her mortality. In the same spirit as Frankenstein, Edward sees his cre ator as a father figure, but laments his own vile existence.It is revealed that her best friend, Jacob, who is also in love with her, is a werewolf. The vampires and the werewolves have a pact, but it will be breached if Bella joins the vampires. There are constant struggles between the humans, vampires, and the werewolves, but the undying love between Bella and Edward is unyielding. The two finally marry, and a baby is conceived that almost kills Bella. Although he has fought it diligently, Edward is forced to ferociously inject his venom into her lifeless body to save her in childbirth.The baby is half vampire and human, and instantly demonstrates supernatural powers, and captivates Jacob, which ends the battle between the coven and the clan. The book ends with a glimpse into the beauty of becoming a vampire when Bella remembers the first moments after she wakes as a newborn vampire: Ã¢â¬Å"his face when IÃ¢â¬â¢d opened my eyes to my new life, to the endless dawn of immortality . . . that first kiss . . . that first night . . . Ã¢â¬ (Meyer 753). The Twilight series is a love story with interjections of paranormal powers and the desire to want the things that cannot be obtained.This tale has consumed many and launched the Ã¢â¬Å"TwihardÃ¢â¬ generation. Meyer made vampires and werewolves vicious and bloodthirsty, but beautiful; unlike their nineteenth century counterparts, who burst into flames in the sunlight and transformed into hideous, drooling monsters, these beautiful creatures glitter in the sunlight and resemble overgrown dogs. Although Meyer made this less horrific than older horror stories, her series encouraged younger generations to discover the beauty of literature again. Stephen King once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Death is a mystery, and burial is a secretÃ¢â¬ (9).Although it is often grotesque, demonic, and depraved, people have an inherent need to explore the divide between good and evil, the known and unknown, and this world and the next. These tales have endured, yet changed, over the last three centuries. Future writers of the macabre will most assuredly follow in their predecessorsÃ¢â¬â¢ footsteps and adapt to cultural changes in their own style. As long as people have inner demons, there will be a need for writers to expose them. Even though these horror classics are classified as fiction, what makes them terrifying is that they mimic the reality of everyday life. Works CitedBaym, Nina, ed. Ã¢â¬Å"Edgar Allan Poe. Ã¢â¬ The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 7th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Norton, 2008. 671-674. Print. DÃ¢â¬â¢Amato, Barbara. Ã¢â¬Å"Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein: an orphaned authorÃ¢â¬â¢s dream and journey toward integration. Ã¢â¬ Modern Psychoanalysis. 34. 1 (2009): 117-135. Web. 7 Aug 2012. Doctrow, E. L. Ã¢â¬Å"Our Edgar. Ã¢â¬ Virginia Quarterly Review. 82. 4 (2006): 240-247. Web 7 Aug 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic Undercurrents. Ã¢â¬ American Passages: A Literary Survey. Annenberg Learne r, n. d. Web 7 Aug 2012. King, Stephen. Pet Sematary. 1st ed. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. , 1984. Print. Meyer, Stephenie. Breaking Dawn. st ed. New York: Atom Books, 2009. Print. Mutch, Deborah. Ã¢â¬Å"Coming Out of the Coffin: The Vampire and Transnationalism in the Twilight and Sookie Stackhouse Series. Ã¢â¬ Critical Survey. 23. 2 (2011): 75-90. Web. 7 Aug 2012. Nash, Jesse. Ã¢â¬Å"Postmodern Gothic: Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Pet Sematary. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Popular Culture. 30. 4 (1997): 151-160. Web. 7 Aug 2012. Poe, Edgar Allan. The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe With Selections From His Critical Writings. Expanded. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc. Alfre A. Knopf. Inc.. 1992. Print. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. 2nd ed. Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999. Print.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
LITERATURE REVIEW: 2.1. Introduction NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s population is about 173.6 million people, this is on a survey carried out by the World Bank (World Bank data bank 2013). The average population density according to (UNDP, 2012 Revision) is approximately 173 persons per square kilometre, making Nigeria one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Though Lagos the former capital is the smallest state in Nigeria in terms of land mass with an area of 356,861 hectares but currently, it possesses the highest population which is over 17.5million as at 2006 census, (this is from parallel count conducted by the state during the national population census). With a projected growth rate of about 3.2%, the population of Lagos could be said to be over 21 million. (Population- Lagos State Government, 2014) Further analysis shows that Metropolitan Lagos, has an area covering of about 37% of the land area of the present Lagos State which accommodates over 85% of the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Hence the population growth is projected to be 600,000 per annum with a population density of about 4,193 persons per sq. km. The average density of persons living per square kilometer in the built-up areas of metropolitan Lagos is about 20,000 persons and the current demographic trend analysis shows 8% population growth rate for Lagos state which in turn represent 36.8% of entire Nigerian urban population that was estimated by the World Bank report of 1996 to be 49.8 million people. Therefore withShow MoreRelatedCauses Of Unemployment In Nigeria1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Unemployment describes the condition of the people without jobs. 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